Saturday, May 23, 2020
In a democractic parliament, rules were set and governed regardless of any country in the world. Malaysia itself is also governed by a a set of rules. The rules assigned to a country is called the constituition. Also called the bill of rights, the constituition of rights is a body of basic principles a state is to be governed with. The Malayan Union first drafted the constitution in 1946 but it was opposed by the indigenous Malay community so it was cancelled. The current Malaysian Constitution was drafted instead on the basis of a report from the Reid Commission before the independence of the nation. The Reid Commission was formed because of the urge of the then Malaya to claim independence and was lead by Lord Reid with many expertsÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦In the State Constitution, matters like Islamic law, agricultural land and forestry, local government and services, state public works and water, state government machinery, state public holidays, state laws, aquatic life, libraries, museums, monuments, ancient records and history are taken into account. However for Sabah and Sarawak there are additional matters such as laws and customs of indigenous communities, boards or institutions of the authorities, ports and harbors, land surveys and the Sabah Railway. In the Common List social welfare, scholarship, protection of wild animals, national parks, livestock breeding, town and village planning, tradesmen and hawkers, public health, drainage and irrigation, safety measures, culture and sports, housing, water supply and electricity. Among the provisions in the Malaysian Constitution the important matters are like the national language, national religion, citizenship, the fundamental liberties and the Special Provision Article 153. In Article 152, it was decided that the national language would be the Malay Language. and nobody is prohibited or hindered from using, teaching or learning another language. And also the government has the right to maintain the use and learning of the language of any other community in the Federation. With the majority of theShow MoreRelatedCases Related to Malaysian Constitution4836 Words Ã |Ã 20 Pagesthe prosecution under s 138 of the Evidence Act, 1950 (EA) read together with s 173(e) of the Criminal Procedure Code (CPC). Learned counsel also argued that the accused has a constitutional guaranteed rights under Articles 5 and 8 of the Federal Constitution to complete his cross examination of prosecution witnesses. s 138 of the Evidence Act, 1950 (EA) - Order of examinations and direction of re-examination (1) Witnesses shall be first examined-in-chief, then, if the adverse party so desires, cross-examinedRead MoreRukun Negara1624 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesfive principles in Rukun Negara; these five principles have been set to guide the behavior and actions of individual or groups of individual within this country. The five principles are Belief in God, Loyalty to King and Country, Upholding the Constitution, Rule of Law, Decorum and Morality. Belief in God is on the top of Rukun Negara principles because it emphasizes the importance of religion and the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s religious conviction which means believing in its teaching no matter what religionRead More Human Rights Issues in Malaysia Essay1293 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesClearly, government response to this protest supports the rejection of basic human rights and freedoms to Malaysian citizens. Additionally, a previous protest in July 2011 also disbanded using tear-gas and chemical laced water cannons (Associated Press, 2012) once again violating basic rights such as freedom of speech and freedom of assembly. The government forcibly controls human rights of Malaysian citizens. The International Security Act Ã¢â¬Å"permits indefinite detention without charge or trial of anyRead MorePeace in Southern Thailand: Malaysia as a Mediator Essay737 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pageson its northern border. For example, it is an open secret that tens or hundreds of thousands of Malay Muslims in border areas are actually illegally hold dual Thai and Malaysian nationality. Then, many current or former leaders of Patani militant groups live in Malaysia, and most of them is under the watchful eye of the Malaysian special branch and intelligence Malaysia services (McCargo, 2014). This is the reason why ZamzaminÃ¢â¬â¢s team was being able to assemble a group of BRN negotiators to join theRead MoreMalaysian Legal System1711 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesModel Answer 1 Every citizen is protected under the Federal Constitution which entrenches certain Ã¢â¬Ëfundamental libertiesÃ¢â¬â¢. In this context, explain what is meant by Ã¢â¬Ëfundamental libertiesÃ¢â¬â¢ and state the main liberties so entrenched in the Federal Constitution. (10 marks) (This question tests the candidatesÃ¢â¬â¢ knowledge on Ã¢â¬Ëfundamental libertiesÃ¢â¬â¢ as provided for in the Federal Constitution.) The phrase, Ã¢â¬ËFundamental LibertiesÃ¢â¬â¢, refers to certain rights, which may be considered as basic and essentialRead MoreThe Development Of The Federation Of Malaysia1180 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesAuthoritarianism 2009) The four Malaysian states that do not have hereditary rulers are Ã¢â¬Å"Melaka and Pulau Pinang in Peninsular Malaysia and Sabah and Sarawak in East MalaysiaÃ¢â¬ these states have governors and do not participate in the selection of the Paramount Ruler. (Political Change and Institutional Rigidity in Malaysia) The Paramount Ruler appoints these governors, for a four-year term. Ã¢â¬Å"The 13 states have its own constitution, which must be compatible with the federal constitution.Ã¢â¬ (Political Change andRead MoreCabinet System4287 Words Ã |Ã 18 Pagesis a council of ministers who are accountable collectively to theÃ Parliament. According to theÃ Article 43Ã of theÃ Constitution, members of the Cabinet can only be selected from members of either houses of Parliament. Formally, theÃ Yang di-Pertuan AgongÃ appoints all Ministers on the advice of the Prime Minister, which he is obliged to follow.According toÃ Article 43Ã of theÃ Constitution, members of th e cabinet including all the ministers and deputy ministers shall not be a member of state legislativeRead MoreSurvival of Authoritarian Regime in Philippine and Malaysia1146 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagespolitics is unstable. Student movement, labor movement and separatism are active. Therefore, Marcos decided to declare martial law. All democratic procedures were stopped. Power is centralized on the hand of Marcos. Legislative institution closed. Constitution was ignored. Party activities were prohibited. Election was delayed. In addition, freedom of media and civilians were also limited. Under martial law, Marcos enjoys the right of legislations. That means, he can rule Philippine by his order withoutRead MoreMalaysian Fundamental Liberties1392 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesliberties? Fundamental liberties are rights and freedoms that we have as human beings. Some fundamental liberties are set out in the Constitution. Because these rights and freedoms are set out in the Constitution, they are said to be Ã¢â¬ËguaranteedÃ¢â¬â¢ and cannot be taken away from us unless the Constitution itself allows it. The Fundamental Liberties guaranteed under the Constitution: Article 5 Ã¢â¬â Right to life and personal liberty Every person has a right to life and liberty. A personÃ¢â¬â¢s life or personal libertyRead MoreCrime : Safety And Security1749 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesexpatriates, as reported by the Royal Malaysia Police in a recent crime victimization survey (OSAC, 2014). Where to Turn to for Assistance if you Become a Victim of Crime Victims of crimes should call the national emergency telephone number: 999 (the Malaysian equivalent of 911). In tourist areas, the RMP have established small Ã¢â¬Å"Tourist PoliceÃ¢â¬ stations to assist tourists in case of an emergency (OSAC, 2014). Best Situational Awareness Practices To avoid becoming the victim of a purse snatching, be alert
Monday, May 18, 2020
Not knowing where these biases have come from, but it has been instilled in human beings at a young age that females show gentle emotions, and males show more aggressive emotions. Ã¢â¬Å"Sayings such as Ã¢â¬Ëboys donÃ¢â¬â¢t cryÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬Ësugar and spice and everything niceÃ¢â¬âthatÃ¢â¬â¢s what little girls are made ofÃ¢â¬â¢ reflect cultural beliefs and expectations that girls show cheeriness or sadness, whereas boys are strong and calm, showing anger if necessaryÃ¢â¬ (Chaplin Aldao, 2013). Before this study, there were only empirical reviews of happiness expression. There has been no empirical review of gender differences on negative emotions during the childhood and adolescence stages. Ã¢â¬Å"Learning is a key feature of healthy social emotional developmentÃ¢â¬ (Chaplin Aldao, 2013). As stated in the article, an infant communicates through a series of emotions when it needs something, like when the child is hungry or when the child needs its diaper changed, or when the child just wants attention in general. The child Ã¢â¬Å"develops flexible patterns of facial, vocal, and behavioral expressions of emotions that allow them to communicate their feelingsÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ (Chaplin Aldao, 2013). Social relationships are developed by childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s emotional expressions. If children are not able to express themselves or are limited to emotion expression, it is a higher risk that the child may develop a compromised socioemotional functioning and a risk for developing psychopathology. Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦Boys are more likely to have conduct problems such asShow MoreRelatedA Research Study On Social Anxiety1462 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesplayed by environmental aspects. On the other hand, cognitive process modify the thoughts of an individual during the course of development (Albano Kendall, 2002). This research highlights that in early adolescence thinking abilities are developed adequately for individuals to recognise and develop their own cognitive worlds (Albano Kendall, 2002). Theoreticians emphasise on differences among individuals in complex cognitive skills involving decision making, problem solving skills, and memoryRead MoreA Research Study Of Age Related Development1543 Wor ds Ã |Ã 7 Pagesthe changes within brain development, behaviours, emotions and personality. (bee boyd, p.3). The Lifespan approach believes that development occurs throughout a personÃ¢â¬â¢s life starting from conception and ending when a person dies. When looking at lifespan development there are five different approaches which are Psychodynamic, Humanistic, Behaviourist, Cognitive and Biological. My essay will explore the developmental theories relating to adolescence and the advantages and disadvantages of using theseRead MoreThe Hypothetical Scenario Of A Young Female Student Name Brynne1383 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesshe is becoming rude and rebellious in class, but still obtains top marks. To describe and address this scenario the three relevant themes are: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Physical development, sex difference and gender roles Ã¢â¬ ¢ Family, peers, media and schooling Ã¢â¬ ¢ Social and emotional well being It is most likely that Brynne is at the age of adolescence and experiencing major physical and emotional changes. Berk (2006) mentions that Ã¢â¬Ëpuberty profoundly affects psychological development and social relationshipsÃ¢â¬â¢, which mayRead MoreComparing Adolescents And Early Adulthood1432 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Adolescents and Early Adulthood: Comparing Adolescents from Early Adulthood During the stages of adolescents and early adulthood there are very many various models we can look at to give us the answers of how our mind works during those stages. One of the models we can look at is the Cognitive Development model. For adolescents, they gain different many new mental tools because of a very dramatic shift from concrete to abstract thinking. Adolescents now can now analyze very different situationsRead MoreProblems Related to Identifying, Diagnosing and Assessing Depression in Adolescents When Taking Into Account Gender and Other Contextual Factors.3528 Words Ã |Ã 15 PagesProblems related to identifying, diagnosing and assessing depression in adolescents when taking into account gender and other contextual factors. Table of Contents Introduction Developmental stage of adolescence Defining mood disorders Mood disorders in adolescents Diagnosing and classifying depression in adolescents Assessment and treatment of depression in adolescents How gender influences depression in adolescents Contextual factors related to depression in adolescents Other factorsRead MoreAdolescent Self And Socio Emotional Development2699 Words Ã |Ã 11 PagesDavid Kerr, EED441 - Constructions of Adolescence and their Educational Implications. Assignment one, Adolescent Self and Socio-emotional Development. A. Identify and discuss 3-5 key socio-emotional issues illustrated in the mid-adolescentÃ¢â¬â¢s portrait. B. Outline the trends that occur in each of the chosen areas of socio-emotional development as a typical high school student moves from early adolescence (e.g. Year 7/8) to mid-adolescence (Year 11/12). C.Consider and discuss how a high school teacherRead MoreThe Developmental Theories By Erik Erikson And Jean Piaget1728 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagescommunicating effectively and understand differences between all types of life experiences we encounterÃ¢â¬ (Robinson, 2008, 13). Erikson believed that external factors such as parents and society play a major role in development from childhood to adulthood. Out of the eight stages Erikson proposed, the first four stages of development depend on what is done to a person while stages five through eight depend primarily upon what a person does. The first stage (basic trust vs mistrust) occurs in infancyRead MoreAdolescence: Developmental Psychology and Social Work Practice3506 Words Ã |Ã 15 Pagesand Behaviour. Assessment Title: What are the advantages and disadvantages of viewing behaviour through the life-span perspective for social practise? ADOLESCENCE The authorÃ¢â¬â¢s aim is to outline the advantages as well as disadvantages in adolescence behaviour and human development processes across people life span, and particular adolescence. This essay will look at the different models, theories of social work and the factors that may have influence social work practice. The physical, psychologicalRead MoreDevelopment Of Self Esteem, Self Concept And Identity Through Middle Childhood And Adolescence2561 Words Ã |Ã 11 PagesApplied Assignment Option 3 Development of self-esteem, self-concept and identity through middle childhood and adolescence Anuja Rupesh Vora New York University The years between 6 and 18, middle childhood to adolescence is a time of important development that leads to the establishment of self-concept, self-esteem, and identity for children. Self-concept can be defined as an idea of the self that is created from the beliefs one holds about oneself and the way that others respondRead MoreNegative Factors Of Self Esteem During Adolescence1584 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Un-pretty: Negative Factors Related to Self Esteem During Adolescence Introduction According to the American Psychological Association (2010), the definition of self-esteem is the degree to which the qualities and characteristics contained in oneÃ¢â¬â¢s self concept are perceived to be positive. It reflects a personÃ¢â¬â¢s physical self-image, view of his or her accomplishments and capabilities, and values and perceived success in living up to them, as well as ways in which others view and respond to that
Tuesday, May 12, 2020
Global governance institutions, from the International Monetary Fund to the World Trade Organization, are little loved. They are often perceived as bastions of sclerotic mediocrity at best and outright corruption at worst. In the wake of the 2008 financial crash, Daniel W. Drezner, like so many others, observed the smoking ruins of the global economy and wondered the extent to which global governance institutions have affected the post-recession, international system. In The System Worked, Drezner contends that despite the massive scale and reverberations of this latest crisis (larger, as he argues, than those that precipitated the Great Depression), the global economy has bounced back remarkably well. Examining the major resuscitationÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Conceptually, Denzer appears to conflate the phases of violence, discrediting the belief that violence transpires through stages. In a Denzerian world, the international system is bifurcated between violence and nonviolence. In his assessment of financial resilience through public sentiments, DenzerÃ¢â¬â¢s overinvestment in evidence that measures peace through actual violence versus potential violence discredits various disputes that have escalated diplomatically, but have yet to turn violent. Denzer supposes that all liberalizing change must involve varying degrees of violence, ipso facto breaching a threshold of peace. Denzer profoundly overlooks the generally peaceful regime change s in Egypt and Tunisia, which, like so many others, were predominantly led by civil disobedience, civil resistance, and online activism, rarely intensifying into violent demonstrations. DenzerÃ¢â¬â¢s assessment also misses cold or still conflicts, whose underlying causes and historic underpinnings have surfaced amid the ever-competitive, protectionist nature following Great Recession. Take for example China and JapanÃ¢â¬â¢s diplomatic clash over the contested Senkaku Islands. For four decades, Chinese and Japanese grievances have been reshaped in light of new regional expectations and financial conditions. In JapanÃ¢â¬â¢s case, theShow MoreRelatedThe World Trade Organization Essay1690 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe key multilateral economic institutions provide financial support though grants and loans as a way to enable economic and social development to occur in developing countries. The three main institutions i will be talking about include the World Bank, International Monetar y Fund and the World Trade Organisation. These organisations provide loans, grants and practical assistance to governments, in addition to loaning money to assist private businesses within developing countries. They also playRead More Role of IMF and World Bank Essay example1433 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Introduction The worldÃ¢â¬â¢s major international financial institutions represent paradoxical ideals in their quest to satisfy the needs of both developed and developing nations. These institutions are chartered with helping poor nations but are criticized for their neo-colonial policies. Member nations are all considered equal, but contributions make some more equal than others. Mostly, these organizations are managed by rich nations that usurp the autonomy of developing nations in the pursuitRead MoreThe Global Political Economy : A Washington Consensus A New Paradigm For Development1354 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesPOLS2220 Ã¢â¬â The Global Political Economy Research Essay, Due: 13th October 2014 Is the Post Ã¢â¬â Washington Consensus a new Paradigm for Development? Explain your reasoning. Quote (40) If there is a consensus today about which strategies are most likely to promote the development of the poorest countries in the world, it is this: there is no consensus except that the Washington Consensus did not provide the answer. (Stiglitz 2004, 2) Introduction (250) Within the Global Political economic, there haveRead MoreGlobalization Has Brought A Huge Change Essay1651 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesto the way the world operates and functions. The variables that affect the way the world is connected not only stay as a matter of one country, but also stretch beyond several countries. Accordingly, the management and control of them has started to take a new form. The new concept of Ã¢â¬Å"global governanceÃ¢â¬ has spread as global issues appear beyond nation-states. In this global governance, however, the question of Ã¢â¬Å"who governsÃ¢â¬ - who will be the principal actor that governs the new global system- can beRead MoreThe World Experienced A Tremendous Financial Crisis Essay1131 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Introduction In 2008, the world experienced a tremendous financial crisis which rooted from the U.S housing market; moreover, it is considered by many economists as one of the worst recession since the Great Depression in 1930s. After posing a huge effect on the U.S economy, the financial crisis expanded to Europe and the rest of the world. It brought governments down, ruined economies, crumble financial corporations and impoverish individual lives. For example, the financial crisis has resultedRead MoreGlobalization and Its Discontents1109 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Chapter 1: The Promise of Global Institutions International Organizations Ã¢â¬â powerful institutions today A. International Bureaucrats Ã¢â¬â the Ã¢â¬Å"faceless symbols of the world economic orderÃ¢â¬ are under attack B. Protests of IntÃ¢â¬â¢l Org Meetings Ã¢â¬â continual flashpoints/conflict 1. WTO Ã¢â¬â Seattle, 1999 protest 2. Annual IMF/World Bank protests 3. Protests not new in developing world, ARE new in developed world 4. Now, with communicationsRead MoreInternational Institutions And The United Nations1508 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesINTERNATIONAL INSTITUTIONS The world witnessed the rise in Economy of several countries. As a result of which people became and rich and economically prosper. The International Organizations like the United Nations and its subordinate bodies exercised greater control over the World. The International bodies are responsible for the maintenance of World peace and to address several other issues which are affecting the countries. The brief description of the International bodies is as under; Ã¢â¬ ¢ The UnitedRead MoreThe International Bodies Of The United Nations1434 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesChapter III Ã¢â¬â International bodies The world witnessed the rise in Economy of several countries. As a result of which people became and rich and economically prosper. The International Organizations like the United Nations and its subordinate bodies exercised greater control over the World. The International bodies are responsible for the maintenance of World peace and to address several other issues which are affecting the countries. The brief description of the International bodies is as under;Read MoreIntroduction. Global Governance Is The Most Significant2684 Words Ã |Ã 11 PagesINTRODUCTION Global governance is the most significant undertaking towards political collaboration that addresses, mediates and provides leadership to issues that affect member states and has huge impacts on world trade. In the last few decades, various communities in the world have become increasingly interconnected due to economic integration and increasing change in technology (Ikenberry, 2015). Global governance constitutes organizing, administering and supervision of global affairs and processesRead MoreRegulation Of Otc Derivatives : Guidelines1463 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pageslaws have changed the market structure because of trade restrictions and exit of banks from the market. The Dodd-Frank Act should be implemented internationally to hinder instability in the global financial sector. Introduction Financial derivatives have existed in some form for hundreds of years, the oldest example involves a greek philosopher and the production of olive oil. With the widespread use of these instruments governments across the world have developed regulations and laws to control derivative
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Son of Sam Law Agree or Disagree? Abstract Son of Sam Law Ã¢â¬â Should convicted criminals be able to profit from their crime? If a person is convicted of murdering an individual and writes a book to tell their story, they should not be able to earn money from the profit of their book. Some people believe that it can be a good way to earn money for the criminalÃ¢â¬â¢s defense,while othersmaintain that any money earned should be given to the victimÃ¢â¬â¢s family or even create some type of trust account for future victims or programs to help others. Son of Sam Law While watching the news the other day, I caught a story about a criminal who wanted to make a movie about his crime. My first thought was, Ã¢â¬Å"No way!Ã¢â¬â¢. That is horrible for someoneÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Many believe that the Son of Sam Law goes against the fundamentals of the First Amendment of the US Constitution. Another opposing belief is that if a person is convicted of a crime can be compensated for telling their story they will be able financially to take care of their family members. If anyone is to profit from a crime it should be the victim or their loved ones. Some victims may need financial help paying for medical expenses or even day to day living expenses depending on the level of injury they have. Another solution could be that all proceeds from a book or movie, etc. could be placed in a victimÃ¢â¬â¢s assistance account to help all victims and their families.I will not buy anything that has been written by a convicted criminal if th e criminal is the person to receive the profits. There have been stories that have been told in the past that I refuse to pay for. Currently there is a case in the California Supreme Court Frank Sinatra, Jr. v Barry Keenen over the kidnapping of Sinatra, Jr. that happened over forty years. Keenen served his time for kidnapping Sinatra, Jr. and receiving $240,000.00 from Frank Sinatra, Sr. in 1963. (Sealey, 2012). The California Supreme Court is deciding whether Keenen or Sinatra, Jr. can receive any money for telling the story of kidnapping Frank Sinatra, Jr. Keenen believes that it is his story to tell and Sinatra, Jr. feels that as the victim he should be compensated. ThereShow MoreRelatedArgumentative Essay About Pranks1214 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesphysically, and emotionally) toward whom the prank is being pulled on. S;Or the actors have been accused of child abuse as viewers reported to the parents pulling the Ã¢â¬Å"invisible ink prankÃ¢â¬ on their nine year old son. M: lets start off with the very popular youtuber, Sam pepper. S: Sam pepper is very well known for his pranks. M: He started to make these new Ã¢â¬Å"pranksÃ¢â¬ where he would go around handling women in ways that he definitely should not. S: he would then point to someone else, and say Ã¢â¬Å"ohRead MoreCritical Analysis Of Buried Child1609 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Literary Criticism Essay WomanÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"RolesÃ¢â¬ in Sam ShepardÃ¢â¬â¢s Buried Child, is a critical analysis of the play Buried Child, and is written by Leonard Mustazza. In this analysis, Mustazza argues three central points, These central arguments frame female characters in Buried Child as fundamentally different from men. These claims suggest that, in Buried Child, womenÃ¢â¬â¢ behavior is markedly Ã¢â¬Å"less eccentricÃ¢â¬ and that the men are characterized by their Ã¢â¬Å"bizarre personalities and symbolic actionsÃ¢â¬ whileRead MoreAnalysis Of The Profane 2016 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagesfor thanksgiving with her boyfriend Sam, the son of conservative Muslim immigrants. As soon as they arrive to the house, the tensions between the characters begin when Emina introduces her boyfriend to her father, who does not even shake his hand to salute him. On the other hand, EminaÃ¢â¬â¢s mother seems to forcefully act like she likes Sam because she wants to make her daughter happy. However, her si ster Aisa makes clear to let her know that her parents do not agree with this decision, Ã¢â¬Å"You know thisRead MoreThe Outbreak Of Witchcraft Accusations Of 1692 In Salem,1730 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pageseight children in her lifetime. The significance of these traits of Rebecca Nurse agree, for the most part, with the first four points of DemosÃ¢â¬â¢s portrait as simply basic, biographical information pertaining to Rebecca Nurse. These facts do not say much about her personality, or her reputation in the society. The idea of reputation is important because the remaining five points of DemosÃ¢â¬â¢s portrait of a witch disagree with the accusations made on Rebecca Nurse, and relate to social status as well asRead MoreJohn Stuart Mill And Immanuel Kant Essay1805 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesconsequences may have been, had the torture not taken place (Smith, 2007). After review of Ã¢â¬ËBecause it is wrongÃ¢â¬â¢ there is strong evidence which concludes that Charles and Gregory Fried do not support the use of torture. Throughout this text, father and son agree that the use of torture is morally incorrect, and unacceptable. The article is based off the book, Ã¢â¬Å"Because it is WrongÃ¢â¬â¢: A Meditation On Torture, written by Gregory and Charles Fried. They express that Ã¢â¬Å"decent, civilized human beings will not underRead MoreThe Bible Is Not A Children s Book Essay1983 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pages(167). Within the biblical texts, however, necromancy remains an exception to this apparent weakness (168). Nearly all conversations regarding necromancy among biblical scholars will make use of the story of Saul and the necromancer in 1 Sam 28. So much so, Hays refers to it as Ã¢â¬Å"the touchstone...of Israelite necromancy,Ã¢â¬ (169). In this particular story, Saul, the then King of Israel, is concerned about an impending battle with the Philistines. Not having been given guidance by Yahweh, SaulRead MoreThe First Successful Settlement Of The United States1959 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesfrom of self-government in America. Meaning majority rule and people had the right to vote on laws or punishments. Without the Mayflower Compact the U.S may have still been run by a king and would not be able to say what laws and punishments we agree and disagree on. This was one of the first steps to escaping the monarch and Britain. Fundamental Orders of Connecticut is the first written constitution in the Americas singed by Thomas Hooker in 1638. With this being created it set a base for the U. SRead MoreAn Impact Assessment of Science and Technology Policy on National Development of Nigeria61708 Words Ã |Ã 247 PagesTechnology. vii I am particularly grateful to Professor Turner T. Isoun for his wise counseling and words of encouragement which served as sources of strength and actually inspired me to complete this study. The intellectual support of Dr. Gen. Sam. Momah and the moral support of Mrs. Pauline Tallin are also appreciated. I wish also to express my profound gratitude to the Permanent Secretary of the Federal Ministry of Science and Technology, Dr. Abdullahi A. Aliyu for his concern and supportRead MoreMy Perfect Partner in Life7009 Words Ã |Ã 29 Pagesa long-time employee of the grooms father, acted as a matchmaker. On the day he arrived in the young womans town, he walked up to her, asked her a few questions, talked to her relatives, and then knew that she was the one to marry his employers son. This old man popped the question to her father and then made arrangements to take her back for the marriage--and she willingly went! The bride and groom were Rebekah and Isaac. The Genesis 24 account of what led up to their marriage offers anRead MoreEnglish All Semester 26504 Words Ã |Ã 27 Pagesrationale for the verdict? The jurorÃ¢â¬â¢s rationale for the verdict was that Lion food had sought twice the amount as compensation for wages paid to producers and also paid the company to train the workers. Part B Sound Off and Break it Down: Argue or Agree with your classmates! * Post your response to this question: I responded to Marc Todd on 08/27/11 Do you believe journalists have a duty to be watchdogs for the public? Why or why not? Yes I believe the duty of a journalist is to be Ã¢â¬Å"watchdogsÃ¢â¬
I Introduction a)What is then training and development? Training and development is a concept in management which allow the organisational activity to be aimed directly at performance of individuals, groups and the organization (Landale, 1999). There are three main activities under the guise of training and development which are interlinked Ã¢â¬â training, education and development. It is not just the role of the employer to identify training and development needs, the employee also needs to be able to identify their role in the organization and how they can effectively develop themselves (Landale, 1999). We will write a custom essay sample on Sustaining effective staff training and development in the workplace or any similar topic only for you Order Now Van der Bossche et al (2010) acknowledge that due to the rapid advancements in technology and knowledge require the individual to participate in personal and professional development. The development of talent within the organization is necessary for competitive advantage to exist, it is also necessary for the retention of employees. The organization needs to identify talent and to support the individuals through all their training needs. b) Training and Development is described as the necessity to cover the essential skills used in the everyday work situation. Within the promotion of training and development, the individual needs to be focused on the goal of developing their skills, knowledge and understanding of how the organization exists within its environment (Jerling, 1996). If the manager can motivate the employee in their work and can encourage development then the employee will see it in a positive light and will work towards the goals.I I Background Having effective employees is instrumental to the success of any business organization. This is the case because of the high employee turnover rates and high unemployment rates evident in most countries. Since the 2008 recession in the U.S, other countries of the world have experienced the ripple effects as the world largest economy struggles to recover. The European nations have suffered under the current debt crisis that has shrunk economies in Europe. Other countries in African and Asia have also felt the impact, as their economies are most dependent on both the U.S and European markets for trade. The subject of having effective employees has therefore, gained relevance as employers look for ways to sustain their workers. In an effort to keep their most important asset, organizations are heavily involved in the training and development of employees (Hung Wong 2007). Training and development has been a tool used by organizations to mitigate the risks of losing employee to other org anizations. It has also been used to groom future leaders of the company, as well as assist organizations in saving time and money. This essay shall discuss two theories that discuss employer support and training, as well as the impacts of employee performance in relation to training and development of employees.III Development Humphry Hung and Yiu Wong have come up with two theories that discuss the relationship between the employer and the workers when it comes to training, continuing education and work study performance (Hung and Wong, 2007). The theories were introduced because of a case study of Hong Kong students who were in school and worked at the same time. The authors then came up with the theories to help explain the student or employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s performance in relations to their employees and employer relationship (Hung and Wong, 2007). The first theory was the psychological contract theory while the second one was the expectancy disconfirmation theory. The researchers realized the need for employees to have an education so that they are able to move up the ladder as far as the work force is concerned. The researchers used the employee and employer relations as the subject of research, and came up with a model to explain how training and development can be effectively used in the workplace (Hung Wong2007). Psychological contract theory According to the psychological theory, the employer and the employee have a set of beliefs, promises and obligations that go beyond the formal contract between the two. This psychological contract theory is attributed to the second wave of research in this subject, namely where the basis is a mutual loyalty between employees and organization (Hall and Moss, 1998). The elements of the third wave of research on the psychological contract, which measures the attitudes and perpceptions of employees towards organization are demonstrated below (Robinson, 1996). In other words, once an employer hires an employee, the employee has to abide by certain rules while the employer is obligated to behave professionally. This means that the employees expect to exchange their loyalty and productivity for wages and other forms of compensation (Kimberly 2009). This theory may be regarded to be limited in delivery of depth of investigation of relations between organization and employees (Robinson and Morrisson, 1995). This suggests that recent research has failed to acknowledge the fact that psychological contact theory is more multi-dimensional as opposed to what has been presented in the research (Trunley and Feldamn, 1999a). As a result, there were two kinds of contents presented, namely transactional and relational. Transactional content involves measurable economic exchanges between the two parties. For instance, an employee works 40 hours a week for a paycheck at the end of the week. Relational contents are based on trust and long-term relationships. In such a case, an employee can delegate a certain role to the employee based on trust (McConnell 2004). In the study, three principles can emerged. First, there is interaction at an individual level, mutual relationship between the two parties and finally tactical exchanges. Most people believe that the relationship between the employee and the employer is based on personal ties because the employer is an embodiment of the organization, and the experience of their interaction dictates the success of an organization (Hung Hing 2007). On the other hand, some believe that there has to be a mutual relationship between the employer and the employee for organizations to succeed. The mutual obligation is based on the belief that the employer is obliged to the employee in return for a commitment. Finally, the tactical exchanges occur between the workers in which case, the employee insists on a mental connection between the two parties (Kimberly 2009). The significance of the psychological contract theory is that it attempts to explain the employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s behavior in regards to how he is treated by the employer. In other words, the employee relationship to the employer is imperative to matters regarding how employees react when subjected to training by organizations. The development of the employee dictates the performance of the employee in the continuing work-study. The research found that students who had a good working relationship with their employer performed well in their training and education compared to those who had a bad relationship (Hung Hing 2007). Another limitation is attributed to the assumption, that psychological contact theory fails to address the specifics of individual work behaviour (Robinson, 1996a). From methodological perspective, this theory was developed on the basis of employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s self-appraisals. As a result, it failed to include the actual supervisorÃ¢â¬â¢s appraisals, which are perceived to be quite crucial in delivery of objective opinion on the subject of job performance (Keeney and Svyantek, 2000). Expectancy disconfirmation theory The expectancy disconfirmation theory is similar to that of consumer dissonance. Only that in this case, it deals with the employee, as opposed to the consumer. The theory was brought about from the comparison of a worker and a consumer when dealing with their products. An employee is believed to have positively disconfirmed their role in the organisation when their perceived performance exceeds their expected performance (RoughtonMercurio 2002). The opposite is true and referred to as negative disconfirmation. Negative disconfirmation occurs when an employee believes that their expectations exceed their perceived The ability for the organisation to be able to sustain effective staff training and development in the workplace is a necessity in the global market. The purpose of this paper is to reflect on training and development in the workplace (Venkatesh and Goyal, 2010). Other considerations which must be taken into consideration when discussing this topic are in relation to the culture and structure of the organisation as well as the importance of communication and the impact of the leadership styles on the overall behaviour of the organisation (Venkatesh and Goyal, 2010). The global market has allowed the transfer of skills and knowledge through migration and the internationalisation of organisations. Training and development are important to how the organisation can compete in the market, if the organisation can sustain their employees through training and development they will be able to compete in the market. The effectiveness of employees will prove to be a valuable asset to the organisation and it is important that the organisation holds on to their employees (Klein, 1998). It has been argued that the resources of an organisation are the key sources of competitiveness. There is a need to examine the background of the organisation Ã¢â¬â culture and structure to see how these can determine how the organisation perceives training and development opportunities within the organisation. This theory has also proved to have some limitations attributed to it. This implies that it has been a subject to limitations imposed on the methodlogical approach. This implies that there have been some concerns reported in relation to the measurement of expectations that have been met (Irving and Meyer, 1999). This implies that direct measurement which is utilized in prediction of the disrepency between the expectations in relation to the job and actual behavioural intentions (Irving and Meyer, 1999). Strategic Management Strategic management is an essential process which needs to be considered in any organisation. Thompson Martin (2005) explain the process as being concerned with organisational actions and activities which identify and deal with threats, opportunities etc in both the internal and external environment. How strategic management is managed shows how well the organisation can adapt to change and how training and development will be welcomed in the organisational context. Lamb (1984) states that strategic management assesses competitors of the organisation and sets goals and strategies which can be seen in the context of training and development and how the organisation views the importance of its employees. One of the most important strategic processes is the practice of retaining employees. It is best practice to keep the skills and knowledge available to the organisation to remain competitive and to be able to recruit the most talented individuals in the market. If an organisation has the pick of the talent through their recruitment process they can sustain their competitive advantage which will allow them to compete consistently. The type of culture is reflected through the recruitment and selection processes as well the organisational structure and culture. If an organisation can effectively train and develop their workforce as well as retain their employees. Performance management and a competitive incentive programme can enhance the ability of the organisation to select and recruit the individuals they want to recruit to positions and not just because they have to fill the position (Phillips Pulliam Phillips (2002). Lambin (2000) defines the strategic process as allowing management to identify advantages and disadvantages. It will be important to identify the advantages and disadvantages of training and development further on in this paper but it is extremely necessary that these are identified so that the organisation can identify the skills and knowledge which they require in their organisation. The human element to the resources of the organisation are extremely important, Armstrong (2006) cites that the skills and competencies identified within the human resources process need to meet the future demands and challenges of the organisation and the environment. It will be necessary for the organisation to meet the pressures from the competitive environment and it should be prepared for this. Most organisations would not be able to function effectively in their environment without sustaining effective training and development in their workplaces. It is important that employees can be motivated i nto performing and target meeting. Organisational Culture The culture of the organisation is an integral factor of organisational activity. Holbeche (2006) believes that there are issues linking corporate social responsibility, accountability and the stakeholder environment. The culture of the organisation will impact on the behaviour of the employees in reference to how they behave, their work attitudes, the ability to embrace change and how the organisational objectives are achievable or not. Motivational theory is extremely important (Alderfer, 1969, Vroom, 1964, Maslow, 1943, Herzberg, 1966) link the goals of the organisation to the performance and achievement of personal goals which in turn can be fuelled by how skilled and knowledgeable the individual is. The culture of the organisation can be linked to success through the achievement of the competitive advantage. Deal Kennedy (1982) believe that the most important factor for the success or failure of the organisation is the culture. Culture by its very nature is implicit of behaviours within the organisation. Leadership and management are also essential to the understanding of culture and how it affects all mechanisms within the organisation (Rabey, 2003). This is also essential to the concept of training and development within the organisation as the development of management within the organisation, as the leadership role needs to grow both personally and professionally thus the impetus is on the development through training and development. The leader plays a role in the development of the organisation and if this individual is in tune with the development and training of the human resources, the organisation will embrace this concept. Schein (2004) reflects that the leadership and culture are inseparable. Structure is also important to the training and development environment within an organisation. The more rigid the hierarchical structure the less likely the culture will embrace training and development p ractices. While many organisations realise the need for progressive training and development it should be noted that not every organisation is a learning organisation (Schein, 2004). Leadership It is necessary to understand leadership as a concept before attempting to evaluate training and development. The development of the leader, according to Pedlar et al (2003), is that the concept is based on unexamined assumptions. There is no single definition of a leader, however, there are many attributes attached to leadership such as an ability to adapt, to make decisions, to be flexible and to be able to recognise skills within themselves and within others. The ability of the strategic manager is to be able to create an environment where employees want to participate and make a significant contribution to their role in the organisation. It is through this communicative process that the leader can identify the development requirements of the employee. The employee should be able to trust the judgement of the leader to allow them to participate in any programmes for development and learning within the organisation (Rabey, 2003). It is also necessary that the leader can identify any developmental needs in their own career progression. If the leader is forward thinking they will bring the organisation into line with the requirement of the selection and recruitment process to enhance the competitive nature of the organisation. The performance of the individual is impacted by the authority figure in the organisational relationship and can be highly influenced by the use of incentives. One such incentive which can be used to motivate the employee is that of training and development opportunities. These types of incentives are extremely important in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s global environment with the internationalisation of organisations and the free movement of the workforce. The more skilled the workforce, the more ability the employee has to dictate their position within the organisation. This position allows the employee to hold some power over the authority figure as they can determine where they want to go in terms of their career and their development. Communication is key to this process so that the employee knows what kind of training is available to them and for the leader to be able to communicate the type of training which may best suit the employee. It is important that the leader can apply self development to themselves before they apply it to the individuals within their organisation and there should be an ethos throughout the organisation on lifelong learning . Learning Organisation In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s global environment the concept of lifelong learning is extremely important and it is necessary for all employees to keep their development and learning up to date. The availability of learning to employees should be a pre-requisite to any organisation who profess to be a global leader. It is necessary for all employees to keep their skills, resources and knowledge updated so that they can compete in their business market. The markets while very dynamic and complex are also extremely competitive, and organisations are always looking for the right individual to take up a position within the organisation, who will ultimately enhance their competitive advantage (Lambin, 2000). Lifelong learning as a concept is not new, however, the concept of learning within the organisational context is very new. This allows the individual to learn around their own experiences. Both the organisation and the individual should be in synch with each other to allow their goals to be achieved. The service which the individual can apply to their customer greatly leaves a mark on the organisation as to how proficient it is in dealing with its customer. The ability of the organisation to provide professional training for their employees will successfully promote the organisation as well as the role of the employee. It is necessary that lifelong learning should be promoted more readily in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s global markets due to the expansion of business and the free movement of employees to other countries. Lifelong learning can be provided throughout the organisation and does not necessary mean that it must be formal, it can be on the job training, but it should be used to encourage and motivate the individual. It is important to understand that the concept of lifelong learning is not without it disadvantages and within many organisations the facility is very much available. However, it is up to the individual to decide that they wish to partake in any programme, and also up to the manager to put the employee forward for training and development. This is very much about communication. Depending on how free flowing communication is, depends on the availability of these facilities. If the employee does not push for these opportunities they can hardly be expected to be handed the opportunity. However, the manager must communicate that these opportunities are available to the employee and explain the positive features for the employee. It is also necessary that the vision and politics of the organisation match the service and opportunities which can be given to employees. The need to preserve the abilities of employees within the organisation has become increasingly important, especially for the organisation to retain the skills, knowledge and resources which it currently holds. Lifelong learning can in effect change the labour market and the direction which the organisation is heading. Smith (2001) identifies the need of an organisation to be progressive, to allow the individual to gain more knowledge throughout their career and to persuade the individual to use the resources available to them for educational and growth purposes. Benefits of Training and Development Training and development is a particularly helpful feature to the organisation as well as the individual. The process allows both the organisation and the individual to grow alongside with the global market. It allows the individual within the organisation to recognise that they should be motivated to perform their job to the best of their ability because they can feel more valued by the incentives which they can receive from the organisation. There are many benefits to the organisation and the employee but it should also be recognised that there are also disadvantages to this. Lifelong learning does not necessary mean that the employee has to go off site on participate in in-house training, it also means a variety of opportunities within the organisation such as job rotation, secondment etc. These types of roles allow the employee to try out the role but also it means that they can avail of training in other positions within the organisation. This type of training can also motivate the employee as it can be seen as a performance reward for their hard work. It would seem in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s environment, the emphasis would be very much on a culture of performance equals rewards. Other types of training and development include attending classes and online courses. Advantages and disadvantages of Training and Development The advantages which can be beneficial to the organisation is the retention of the current employees who are competent in their positions and have the ability to take on new roles within the organisation. If the employee can be trained in other positions it will benefit the organisation when it comes to employees leaving, thus the need for an urgent replacement for the position is no longer made a priority as the organisation can often promote or second from within. This allows the organisation some time to proceed with the recruitment and selection process to allow for them to find the right candidate. This also allows the employee to try other positions within the organisation and to decide if they wish to apply for these positions. With these types of training and development opportunities, the employee gets an opportunity to experience other roles and they may also provide a monetary incentive such as a pay rise while they are in the position. The ability of the organisation to p rovide these types of roles will also allow the organisation to retain their workforce and the skills and knowledge which come with that. It also enhances the skills of the employee. While there are advantages to training and development, there are also disadvantages. These disadvantages are predominately to the organisation but those which are important factors to the employee are the amount of time they would have to spend on the training and they may not be fully aware of the training opportunities which are afforded to them. This could be due to a lack of communication within the organisation or that the organisation is not overly interested in the development of their employees. One major reason that an organisation may not provide training and development would be down to cost in time and money. It may not be convenient for the organisation to spent time and money on an employee when the end result could be that they lose the skills and knowledge of the employee to another organisation due to the training and development they received. This has become more common as employees are more empowered and acknowledge the freedom to move to another job, even to mov e to another country. How Training and Development is Changing Garrison Anderson (2003: p.i) state that Ã¢â¬ËThe growth of e-learning is being described as explosive, unprecedented, and above all, disruptive.Ã¢â¬â¢ E-learning is associated with providing a framework for understanding the application and to goal set. This method of learning has become increasingly adopted as technology is evolving and transforming work practices. Many organisations have acknowledged the need to change according to reviewing the values and culture of their organisations. It has become increasingly important for organisations to adapt to the new learning environment. Training and development has changed rapidly due to global expansion. The employee no longer needs to take time off work to participate in training. Along with on the job training, it has become cost effective for employees to educate themselves through online and DVD/ CDÃ¢â¬â¢s. Technology has afforded organisations and employees easier ways to participate in training and development. Study can take place at the workstation or at home rather than the traditional format where the employee had to leave the workplace and travel to a destination where they could be facilitated. This has become extremely cost effective for the organisation as they are not losing man hours when the employee is studying/ on their course and it also means that workloads are not high because the work is still being completed. Along with the rise in popularity of the Internet and its main feature, namely interactivity, the human resource managers have found out that this may be used to the advantage for training and development purposes (Venkatesh and Goyal, 2010). The internet, as an interactive and communication medium provides wider access to the information and enables distance learning for knowledge transfer purposes. This suggests that it is much easier to engage in learning programs from any location in the world, if an individual has an Internet connection (Venkatesh and Goyal, 2010). Additionally, it has been estimated that the Internet is associated with lower costs, imposed on the training and development strategies. This implies that the main costs are reduced in the areas of physical distribution of training and development programs and the need for hiring a specific staff in order to maintain those. Online training allow the individual to manage the training program by himself, where he is r egarded to be in control over the situation (Venkatesh and Goyal, 2010). Van Dam, (2002) suggests that online training is utilized in combination with the offline channel, suggesting that in the majority of cases, the users of the online training system tend to maintain an offline contact whilst receiving the necessary instructions. The online training system is mainly utilized for the development of computer skills, job-related skills and technical competencies. Recently, there has been an emergence of economic recession that has affected the planning and implementation process of training and development programs. This implies that economic recession has made the companies to reconsider their costs and thereby plan the cuts, where necessary. CIPD, (in EWCO, 2009) has estimated that the performance of the majority of companies in the previous 12 months has been worsened. With regard to training and development, it has been estimated that 32 % of surveyed companies have reported cuts in the training and development budget in the previous 12 months. However, in the light of recession, despite the imposed cuts in budget, the majority of companies has estimated that training and development has not been viewed as an expendable commodity. This implies that the management of the companies still view training and development programs as the key priority for companyÃ¢â¬â¢s achievement of organizational objectives (CIPD in EWCO, 2009; Bourke, 2009) . This suggests that there is a great potential for further investments in training and development programs, given its significance in the corporate world. Methods used in Training and Development This type of training also encourages the employee as they can do all their study with the use of a pc and can do it during working hours at their workstation. It also allows the employee to have more say in their development and to enhance their skills. The use of IT has allowed the development of more globalised skills which are transferrable. It is also appropriate for the organisation to provide the employee with the information about training and development opportunities which is extremely easy compared to how the traditional methods had been. The employee and the organisation can research the courses/ training and development opportunities. The manager has the ability to distinguish worthwhile courses/ training opportunities according to the need of the employee with the use of IT. This is where the ability to communicate and identify the individual needs of the employee as well as their own needs. V References 1.Alderfer, C.P. (1969): An Empirical Test of a New Theory of Human Needs, Organizational Behaviour and Human Performance, Vol. 4, Issue 2, May, pps. 142-175 2.Armstrong, M., (2006): A Handbook of Human Resource Management Practice, 10th Edition, Kogan Bourke A. (2010). Ã¢â¬ËRecession Affects Training and Development ProgramsÃ¢â¬â¢. Available from: http://www.aicpcu.org/MediaCenter/docs/articles/Recession_Affects_Training_and_Development_for_Web_10-09.pdf. Last Accessed: 13th Feb. 2012 CIPD in EWCO (2009). Ã¢â¬ËImpact of recession on workplace trainingÃ¢â¬â¢. Available from: http://www.eurofound.europa.eu/ewco/2009/09/UK0909039I.htm. Last Accessed on 13th Dec. 2012 3.Deal, T.E., Kennedy, A.A., (1982) :Corporate Cultures: The Rites and Rituals of Corporate Life, Harmondsworth, Penguin Books 4.Garrison, D.R., Anderson, T., (2003) :E-Learning in the 21st Century, RoutledgeFalmer, Taylor Francis Group Hall, D. T., Moss, J. E. (1998). Ã¢â¬ËThe new protean career contract: Helping organizations and employees adaptÃ¢â¬â¢.Organizational Dynamics, 26, 22Ã¢â¬â37. Herzberg, F. (1966) :Work and the Nature of Man, Staples Press Holbeche, L. (2006), Understanding Change: Theory, Implementation and Success, Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann Hung, H. Wong Y. (2007), Ã¢â¬ËThe relationship between employer endorsement of continuing education and training and work and study performanceÃ¢â¬â¢: A Hong Kong case studyÃ¢â¬â¢. International Journal of Training Development, 11, 4, pp. 295-313. Irving, P. G., and Meyer, J. P. (1999). Ã¢â¬ËOn Using Residual Difference Scores in the Measurement of Congruence: The Case of Met Expectation Research. A Longitudinal AnalysisÃ¢â¬â¢, Personnel Psychology, 52(1), pp. 85-95. Jerling K. (1996). Education, Training, and Development in Organisation. Pearson: South Africa Keeney, M. J., Svyantek, D. J. (2000). Ã¢â¬ËA review of psychological contract theory and research: Promise nothing and they still may get angryÃ¢â¬â¢. Current Trends in Management, 5, 65Ã¢â¬â94. Kimberly, W. 2009, Value Initiatives Improving Performance in the Workplace. NY:GRIN Verlag 9.Lamb, R., (1984) Competitive Strategic Management, Prentice Hall 10.Lambin, J.J., (2000) Market-Driven Management: Strategic Operational Marketing, MacMillan Business Landale A. (1999). Gower handbook of training and development. 3rd ed., Gower Publishing: UK 11.Maslow, A.H. (1943), Ã¢â¬ËA theory of human motivationÃ¢â¬â¢, Psychological Review, Vol. 50 No. 4, pp. 370 Ã¢â¬â 396. 12.McConnell, C. R. 2004, Ã¢â¬ËManaging Employee PerformanceÃ¢â¬â¢, Health Care Manager, Vol. 23, No. 3, p. 273, Supplemental Index. 13.Pedler, M., Burgoyne, J., Boydell, T., (2003) A ManagerÃ¢â¬â¢s Guide to Leadership, McGraw-Hill Phillips, J.J., Pulliam Phillips, P., (2002) Retaining Your Best Employees: In Action Case Study Series, American Society for Training and Development Rabey, G., (2003) The Paradox of Teamwork, Industrial and Commercial Training, Vol. 35, No. 4, pp. 158 Ã¢â¬â 162 Robinson, S. L. (1996). Ã¢â¬ËTrust and breach of the psychological contractÃ¢â¬â¢. Administrative Science Quarterly, 41:574Ã¢â¬â599. Robinson, S. L., Morrison, E.W. (1995a). Ã¢â¬ËPsychological contracts and OCB: The effect of unfulfilled obligations on civic virtue behaviorÃ¢â¬â¢. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 16: 289Ã¢â¬â298 Roughton, J. Mercurio, J. 2002, Developing an effective safety culture: A Leadership Approach. NY: Butterworth-Heinemann 17.Schein, E.H. (2004): Organizational Culture and Leadership, Jossey-Bass 18.Thompson, J.L., Martin, F., (2005) Strategic Management: Awareness and Change, 5th Edition, Thomson Learning 19.Smith, M. K., (2001) Ã¢â¬ËPeter Senge and the learning organisationÃ¢â¬â¢, the encyclopaedia of informal education, available online at www.infed.org/thinkers/senge.htm Turnley, W. H., Feldman, D. C. (1999a). Ã¢â¬ËThe impact of psychological contract violations on exit, voice, loyalty, and neglectÃ¢â¬â¢. Human Relations, 52, 895Ã¢â¬â922. Van den Bossche, P., Segers, M., Jansen, N., (2010) Transfer of Training: The Role of Feedback in Supportive Social Networks, International Journal of Training and Development, Vol. 14, Iss. 2, pp. 81 Ã¢â¬â 94 van Dam, N. (2002). E-learning by design: Can a better-designed course help you learn moree-learning. 3(1), 38-39. Venkatesh, V. and Goyal, S.(2010). Ã¢â¬ËExpectation Disconfirmation and Technology Adoption: Polynomial Modeling and Response Surface Analysis,Ã¢â¬â¢MIS Quarterly 34, (2), 281-303 Vroom, V.H. (1964), Work and Motivation, John Wiley How to cite Sustaining effective staff training and development in the workplace, Essay examples Sustaining effective staff training and development in the workplace Free Essays Introduction Having effective employees is instrumental to the success of any business organisation. This is the case because of the high employee turnover rates and high unemployment rates evident in most countries. Since the 2008 recession in the U. We will write a custom essay sample on Sustaining effective staff training and development in the workplace or any similar topic only for you Order Now S, other countries of the world have experienced the ripple effects as the world largest economy struggles to recover. The European nations have suffered under the current debt crisis that has shrunk economies in Europe. Other countries in African and Asia have also felt the impact, as their economies are most dependent on both the U.S and European markets for trade. The subject of having effective employees has therefore, gained relevance as employers look for ways to sustain their workers. In an effort to keep their most important asset, organisations are heavily involved in the training and development of employees (Hung Hing 2007). Training and development has been a tool used by organisations to mitigate the risks of losing employee to other organisations. It has also been used to groom future leaders of the company, as well as assist organisations in saving time and money. This paper shall discuss two theories that discuss employer support and training, as well as the impacts of employee performance in relation to training and development of employees. Humphry Hung and Yiu Wong have come up with two theories that discuss the relationship between the employer and the workers when it comes to training, continuing education and work study performance. The theories were introduced because of a case study of Hong Kong students who were in school and worked at the same time. The authors then came up with the theories to help explain the student or employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s performance in relations to their employees and employer relationship. The first theory was the psychological contract theory while the second one was the expectancy disconfirmation theory. The researchers realised the need for employees to have an education so that they are able to move up the ladder as far as the work force is concerned. The researchers used the employee and employer relations as the subject of research, and came up with a model to explain how training and development can be effectively used in the workplace (Hung Hing 2007). Psychological contract theory According to the psychological theory, the employer and the employee have a set of beliefs, promises and obligations that go beyond the formal contract between the two. In other words, once an employer hires an employee, the employee has to abide by certain rules while the employer is obligated to behave professionally. This means that the employees expect to exchange their loyalty and productivity for wages and other forms of compensation (Kimberly 2009). In the psychological contract, there are two kinds of contents, transactional and relational. Transactional content involves measurable economic exchanges between the two parties. For instance, an employee works 40 hours a week for a paycheck at the end of the week. Relational contents are based on trust and long-term relationships. In such a case, an employee can delegate a certain role to the employee based on trust (McConnell 2004). In the study, three principles came emerged. First, there is interaction at an individual level, mutual relationship between the two parties and finally tactical exchanges. Most people believe that the relationship between the employee and the employer is based on personal ties because the employer is an embodiment of the organisation, and the experience of their interaction dictates the success of an organisation (Hung Hing 2007). On the other hand, some believe that there has to be a mutual relationship between the employer and the employee for organisations to succeed. The mutual obligation is based on the belief that the employer is obliged to the employee in return for a commitment. Finally, the tactical exchanges occur between the workers in which case the employee insists on a mental connection between the two parties (Kimberly 2009). The significance of the psychological contract theory is that it attempts to explain the employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s behavior in regards to how he is treated by the employer. In other words, the employee relationship to the employer is imperative to matters regarding how employees react when subjected to training by organisations. The development of the employee dictates the performance of the employee in the continuing work-study. The research found that students who had a good working relationship with their employer performed well in their training and education compared to those who had a bad relationship (Hung Hing 2007). Expectancy disconfirmation theory The expectancy disconfirmation theory is similar to that of consumer dissonance. Only that in this case, it deals with the employee, as opposed to the consumer. The theory was brought about from the comparison of a worker and a consumer when dealing with their products. An employee is believed to have positively disconfirmed their role in the organisation when their perceived performance exceeds their expected performance (Roughton Mercurio 2002). The opposite is true and referred to as negative disconfirmation. Negative disconfirmation occurs when an employee believes that their expectations exceed their perceived performance. The expectancy theory was a catalyst to the employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s job satisfaction and was believed to be a key element in explaining employees moral. Employees that surpassed their expectations felt more satisfied with their role and were more motivated compared to their counterparts who experienced negative disconfirmation. The subject was also duplicated in tr aining of the workers and played a major role in the development of employees in the organisation (Hung Hing 2007). Employee evaluation was also a subject of discussion in regards to employee training and development. Managers who engaged in employee appraisals realised good results as compared to those who did not carry out employee evaluations. Employee evaluation is a tool that if used efficiently can yield positive results on employees especially when it comes to training (Roughton Mercurio 2002). Evaluations are a tool used by management to give their workers a sense of directions in relation to the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s goals. During evaluations, the managers usually explain the organisations goals and try to align them with the employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s goals. This way, the employer and the employee are in a win-win situation. A constant feedback or communication with the employees also makes them feel valued and helps them know what the organisation expects of them. Well-executed performance evaluations have been used to not only sustain efficient employees but also groom future leaders. Evaluation sc hedules usually assist employees to become more efficient in the organisation (McConnell 2004). Conclusion In essence, employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s behavior and performance at work depends on the relationship with the employer. Workers feel valued when other roles are delegated to them because it gives the perception that their employers trust them. In addition, perception and expected performance also plays a huge role in satisfying a workerÃ¢â¬â¢s performance. Workers feel more satisfied when they exceed their expectations at work. Finally, evaluations have to be conducted at work because employees need to have feedback on their impact to their company. Employees who get a feedback usually work hard to achieve their organisational goals. References Hung, H. Yiu Hing, W. 2007, Ã¢â¬ËThe relationship between employer endorsement of continuing education and training and work and study performance: a Hong Kong case studyÃ¢â¬â¢. International Journal of Training Development, 11, 4, pp. 295-313. Kimberly, W. 2009, Value Initiatives Improving Performance in the Workplace. NY: GRIN Verlag McConnell, C. R. 2004, Ã¢â¬ËManaging Employee PerformanceÃ¢â¬â¢, Health Care Manager, 23,3, p. 273, Supplemental Index. Roughton, J. Mercurio, J. 2002, Developing an Effective Safety Culture: A Leadership Approach. NY: Butterworth-Heinemann How to cite Sustaining effective staff training and development in the workplace, Essay examples
How will each option affect the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s financial ratios, which investors watch very closely? Which one would be better for the company? There are two options, which James BrunswickÃ¢â¬â¢s two buddies have proposed. Frank proposal was to invest in new infrastructure while Lew suggests streamlining the order fulfillment system. The capital costs of LewÃ¢â¬â¢s system would run from $5. 3 million for a basic level implementation and $8 million for a fully integrated system. Operating costs and training would be increased $0. 8 million per year, essentially increasing their liabilities, although it would also result in huge savings. Basic implementation would result in 10% savings in direct shipping and labor expenses, while the fully integrated system would save them up to 16%. The overall system would decrease their assets and increase their liabilities due to the cash that would be spent on the system and new training and operating costs. The end result for a basic system would cost . We will write a custom essay sample on Brunswick Distribution or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page 1 million and only save them $672,600 in labor and $893,100 in shipping. The fully integrated system would cost BDI $8. 8 million and save them $1,428,960 in shipping and $1,076,160 in labor. A basic level system would decrease net income by $4,534,300 while a fully integrated system would decrease net income by $6,294,880. FrankÃ¢â¬â¢s option would cost $2 million for property and $10 million for plant and equipment. This investment would also allow Brunswick Distribution Inc. to increase annual sales by $3,600,000. At the same time, this would increase other operating costs as shipping costs go up $955,000, material labor costs increase by 6% ($357,780 for materials $403,560 for labor), and accounts receivable up by $1,500,000. The end result of this system would cost them $13,716,340 and save them $5,100,000. This would result in a decrease of $8,616,340. The better option for BDI would be FrankÃ¢â¬â¢s option of investing in new infrastructure, because in the long-term it will save the company more money, as LewÃ¢â¬â¢s system would be investing in $0. 8 million yearly for operating and training, where FrankÃ¢â¬â¢s option doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t have any long-term liabilities like those. Also, lots of the costs in FrankÃ¢â¬â¢s option is a one-time cost for the property, plant, and equipment, which is a better investment than the order fulfillment system, as it would have a worse affect on the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s financial ratios in the long term.
Friday, May 1, 2020
The current population is 85 million, of which 83 is Roman Catholic, 9 percent Protestant, 5 percent Muslim, and 3 percent other religions (Dalton, 2007). The country has more than 150 languages and dialects. The main languages are Tagalog, English, Cebuano (spoken in Cebu), Ilocano (north Luzon), Ilonggo (Iloilo), Bicol, Waray (Leyte), Pampango and Pangasinense (both in Luzon) (Dalton, 2007). The major industries of the Philippines are textiles, pharmaceuticals, chemicals, wood products, food processing, electronics assembly, petroleum refining and fishing. Its primary agricultural products include rice, coconuts, corn, sugar cane, bananas, pineapples and mangoes (Dalton, 2007). Below (Figure 1) is a basic map of the Philippines. This map just gives us an idea of the size and location of the Philippines. The country is located in Southeast Asia, north of Malaysia and south of Taiwan. As we can see, the country is made up of many big and small islands. It is considered an archipelago and therefore it is surrounded by various water forms. We will write a custom essay sample on Geography of Food Paper or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Figure 1 Basic Map of Philippines Principal Foods Filipino foods are always very rich and diverse in flavour. Food is an integral part of Filipino culture, whether it be social, economic, or even religious. They value food highly and perceive it as a way of bringing families and communities together. Food is a significant facet of Filipino beliefs and traditions, one of which are the customary fiestas often held in various villages around the country. On average, 60% of the total budget is spent on food while 40% goes to non-food items. Among the food items, the largest single item is rice consumption, which takes up about 16% of the total household budget. Around 9% is spent on meat, 7% on vegetables and fruits, 7% on fish and 4% on eggs and dairy products (Fuwa, Marciano, Reano, 2010, p. 3). Filipino foods are also rich in history and innovation. While its roots are mostly influenced by the multitude of ingredients found naturally in the Philippines, it is also inspired by Chinese, Spanish, Arab, Malay and American cuisines (Roa Roa). The Chinese people, who came to trade, influenced Filipino wives with their cooking such as pansit (noodles), lumpia (vegetables rolled in edible wrappers), siopao (steamed filled buns), and siomai (dumplings). Then when the Spaniards came, they brought influences from not just Spain but also Mexico. They introduced new flavours and ingredients such as cheese, ham, olive oil, saffron, paprika and cured sausages. They introduced paella, which was a dish cooked in fields by Spanish workers combining pork, chicken, seafood, ham, sausages and vegetables, bangus (silvery milkfish), and ensaymada, which are brioche cakes buttered, sugared and sprinkled with cheese (Alejandro Fernandez, 1998, p. 8). The most noteworthy influence of Americans on Filipino food culture is fast food, the biggest of which is McDonalds. Before discussing the principal ingredients in Philippines food, we first look into a few of the most common dishes of the country. One of the most popular dishes is adobo, which is braised chicken, pork, beef, or fish cooked in soy sauce, vinegar, garlic and other spices (Roa Roa). Another favourite is sinigang, which is a boiled sour soup made of fish, shrimps, pork, beef or chicken mixed with vegetables and tamarind leaves (Filipino Foods, 2006). Lechon, a whole roast pig that is slowly roasted over live coals and basted regularly with a tasty sauce created from pigÃ¢â¬â¢s liver then simmered with vinegar, sugar and herbs, is a dish that will always be seen in big parties, gatherings, and fiestas. Other common dishes are bistek (beef and onion rings braised in soy sauce), lumpia (spring rolls), pansit (noodles) and the infamous dinuguan (pig blood and innards simmered with vinegar and hot peppers) (Alejandro Fernandez, 1998). Now we dive deeper and look more specifically into the main ingredients of the national cuisine. From the brief discussion of common dishes above, we can clearly see that meats such as chicken, beef and pork are an important part of the cuisine. However, rice is the staple of countryÃ¢â¬â¢s food identity and is also the main agricultural crop (Tope Nonan-Mercado, 2002, p. 117). Rice was planted to over 4 billion hectares producing over 14 billion metric tons in 2005. Rice farming was also the main source of income and employment to 12 million farmers and family members in that year (Altoveros Borromeo, 2007, p. 19). Meals are not complete for Filipinos unless rice is served with it.